List of Governors of California before 1850
Below is a list of the Governors of early California (1769–1850), before its admission as the 31st U.S. state. First explored by Gaspar de Portolá, with colonies established at San Diego and Monterey, California was a remote, sparsely-settled Spanish province of New Spain. In 1822, following Mexican independence, California became part of Mexico.
In 1836, a coup led by Californios Juan Bautista Alvarado and José Castro eventually resulted in Alvarado becoming governor. That conflict ended in 1838, when the central government of Mexico recognized Alvarado as California Governor. The territorial diputación (legislature) approved the appointment.
Another disputed governorship occurred in 1844, settled when another Californio, Pio Pico, became the last Governor of Mexican California. In 1846, the "Bear Flag Revolt" in Sonoma declared California an independent republic—the "Bear Flag Republic". No government was formed, however, and the revolt did not have time to spread very far because, than a month later, California came under U.S. military protection at the outset of the Mexican–American War. California was ceded to the U.S. in 1848, and was admitted as the 31st U.S. state on September 9, 1850. Peter Burnett, the last governor of the post-war military territory, became its first state governor after admission.
Spanish colony, 1769–1822
Mexican territory, 1822–1846
After Mexican rule reached California in 1822, native son Luis Argüello became governor. California's first revolt against Mexico took place the same year as Mexico's first constitution, 1824. In 1832, Gov. Victoria was overthrown; Pio Pico claimed the office for but twenty days, following which the office was either vacant or held by Echeandia, whose authority was challenged by Zamorano, the Comandante General in the north.
U.S. occupied territory pre-statehood, 1846–1850
During the Mexican–American War, U.S. military forces under Sloat, Stockton, and Kearny assumed civilian control. General Mason was the first appointed military governor, in 1847. In 1849, a convention ratified a new state constitution and Peter Burnett was elected governor. On September 9, 1850, California was admitted into the U.S. as the 31st state.
- List of Governors of Russian California (1812–1841)
- List of governors of California after 1850
- List of Texas Governors and Presidents
- List of Spanish governors of New Mexico
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- Robert R. Miller (1998). Juan Alvarado, Governor of California, 1836–1842. University of Oklahoma Press.
- Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, vol. iii, pp. 231–232.
- Irvine, Leigh H. (1905). "Vol. I, Chapter III". A History of The New California: Its Resources And People. New York: The Lewis Publishing Company. OCLC 35952214. Retrieved 2007-07-11.