Dental and alveolar lateral flaps

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Alveolar lateral flap
ɺ
IPA Number181
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɺ
Unicode (hex)U+027A
X-SAMPAl\
Braille⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456)
Audio sample

The alveolar lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɺ⟩, a fusion of a rotated lowercase letter ⟨r⟩ with a letter ⟨l⟩. Approved in 1928, the symbol represented a sound intermediate between [d] and [l][1][2] or between [r] and [l][3][4] until 1979 when its value was redefined as an alveolar lateral flap.[5]

Some languages that are described as having a lateral flap actually have a flap that is indeterminate with respect to centrality, and may surface as either central or lateral, either in free variation or allophonically depending on surrounding vowels and consonants.[6]

Features[edit]

Features of the alveolar lateral flap:

Occurrence[edit]

Dental[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chaga[7] [example needed] Laminal dental.[7]

Alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Japanese[8] /roku [ɺo̞kɯ̟ᵝ] 'six' More commonly [ɾ]. See Japanese phonology
Kasua[9] hilila [hiɺiɺɑ] 'heavy' Never used at the beginning nor the end of a word.[9]
Pirahã toogixi [tòːɺ͡ɺ̼ìʔì] 'hoe' Only used in some types of speech
Wayuu püülükü [pɯːɺɯkɯ] 'pig' Contrasts with /r/

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Association phonétique internationale (1928).
  2. ^ International Phonetic Association (1949), p. 14.
  3. ^ Association phonétique internationale (1932).
  4. ^ Association phonétique internationale (1952).
  5. ^ International Phonetic Association (1978).
  6. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 243.
  7. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 213.
  8. ^ Akamatsu (1997), p. 106.
  9. ^ a b Logan, Tommy (July 2003). "Organised Phonology Data" (PDF). SIL International. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-07-09. Retrieved 2018-07-09. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

References[edit]

  • Akamatsu, Tsutomu (1997). Japanese Phonetics: Theory and Practice. München: Lincom Europa. ISBN 3-89586-095-6.
  • Association phonétique internationale (1928). "desizjɔ̃ ofisjɛl" [Décisions officielles]. Le Maître Phonétique. Troisième série. 6 (23): 51–53. JSTOR 44704266.
  • Association phonétique internationale (1932). "The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 1932)". Le Maître Phonétique. Troisième série. 10 (37). Supplement. JSTOR 44749172.
  • Association phonétique internationale (1952). "The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 1951)". Le Maître Phonétique. Troisième série. 30 (97). Front matter. JSTOR 44748475.
  • International Phonetic Association (1949). "The Principles of the International Phonetic Association". Le Maître Phonétique. Troisième série. 27 (91). Supplement. JSTOR i40200179.
  • International Phonetic Association (1978). "The International Phonetic Alphabet (Revised to 1979)". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 8 (1–2). Supplement. JSTOR 44541414.
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.

External links[edit]