Sinorhizobium meliloti

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Sinorhizobium meliloti
Sinorhizobium meliloti strain Rm1021 on TY agar.JPG
Sinorhizobium meliloti strain Rm1021 on an agar plate.
Scientific classification
S. meliloti
Binomial name
Sinorhizobium meliloti
(Dangeard 1926) De Lajudie et al. 1994, comb. nov.
Type strain
ATCC 9930

CCUG 27879
CFBP 5561
CIP 107332
DSM 30135
HAMBI 2148
IAM 12611
ICMP 12623
IFO 14782
JCM 20682
LMG 6133
NBRC 14782
NCAIM B.01520
NCIMB 12075
NZP 4027
OUT 30010
USDA 1002

  • S. m. bv. acaciae[1]
  • S. m. bv. ciceri[2][3]
  • S. m. bv. lancerottense[4]
  • S. m. bv. medicaginis[5]
  • S. m. bv. mediterranense[6]
  • S. m. bv. meliloti
  • S. m. bv. rigiduloides[7]
  • S. m. ecotype NRR[8]
  • Rhizobium meliloti Dangeard 1926
  • Ensifer meliloti (Dangeard 1926) Young 2003

Sinorhizobium meliloti is a Gram-negative bacterium which fixes atmospheric nitrogen. It forms a symbiotic relationship with legumes from the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella, including the model legume Medicago truncatula. This symbiosis results in a new plant organ termed a root nodule and is deemed symbiotic as it leaves excess nitrogen behind for the plant. S. meliloti are mobile and possess a cluster of peritrichous flagella. The S. meliloti genome contains four genes coding for flagellin. These include fliC1C2–fliC3C4.[9] The genome contains three replicons: a chromosome (~3.7 megabases), a chromid (pSymB; ~1.7 megabases), and a plasmid (pSymA; ~1.4 megabases). Individual strains may possess additional, accessory plasmids. Five S. meliloti genomes have been sequenced to date: Rm1021,[10] AK83,[11] BL225C,[11] Rm41,[12] and SM11[13] with 1021 considered to be the wild type.

Nitrogen fixation by S meliloti is interfered with by the plastic modifier bisphenol A.[14]


Indeterminate nodule

Symbosis by S. meliloti is conferred by genes residing on pSymA.[15] Once infiltrating the nodule, the bacteria undergoes indeterminate nodulation with plants such as those in the genus Medicago. This is symbiotic relationship is not fully understood as it seems to be detrimental to the bacteria as once they are inside root nodules they become terminally differentiated into bacteroids and lose the ability to reproduce independently in the soil environment.[16]

Symbosis between S. meliloti and its plant hosts begins when the plant secretes an array of betaines and flavonoids into the rhizosphere: 4,4′-dihydroxy-2′-methoxychalcone,[17] chrysoeriol,[18] cynaroside,[18] 4′,7-dihydroxyflavone,[17] 6′′-O-malonylononin,[19] liquiritigenin,[17] luteolin,[20] 3′,5-dimethoxyluteolin,[18] 5-methoxyluteolin,[18] medicarpin,[19] stachydrine,[21] and trigonelline.[21] These compounds attract S. meliloti to the surface of the root hairs of the plant where the bacteria begin secreting nod factor.


Plaques in S. meliloti caused by ΦM12.

Several bacteriophages that infect Sinorhizobium meliloti have been described:[22] Φ1,[23] Φ1A,[24] Φ2A,[24] Φ3A,[25] Φ4 (=ΦNM8),[26] Φ5t (=ΦNM3),[26] Φ6 (=ΦNM4),[26] Φ7 (=ΦNM9),[26] Φ7a,[23] Φ9 (=ΦCM2),[26] Φ11 (=ΦCM9),[26] Φ12 (=ΦCM6),[26] Φ13,[27] Φ16,[27] Φ16-3,[28] Φ16a,[27] Φ16B,[25] Φ27,[23] Φ32,[28] Φ36,[28] Φ38,[28] Φ43,[23] Φ70,[23] Φ72,[28] Φ111,[28] Φ143,[28] Φ145,[28] Φ147,[28] Φ151,[28] Φ152,[28] Φ160,[28] Φ161,[28] Φ166,[28] Φ2011,[29] ΦA3,[23] ΦA8,[23] ΦA161,[29] ΦAL1,[30] ΦCM1,[29] ΦCM3,[29] ΦCM4,[29] ΦCM5,[29] ΦCM7,[29] ΦCM8,[29] ΦCM20,[29] ΦCM21,[29] ΦDF2,[30] Φf2D,[30] ΦF4,[31] ΦFAR,[30] ΦFM1,[29] ΦK1,[32] ΦL1,[27] ΦL3,[27] ΦL5,[27] ΦL7,[27] ΦL10,[27] ΦL20,[27] ΦL21,[27] ΦL29,[27] ΦL31,[27] ΦL32,[27] ΦL53,[27] ΦL54,[27] ΦL55,[27] ΦL56,[27] ΦL57,[27] ΦL60,[27] ΦL61,[27] ΦL62,[27] ΦLO0,[30] ΦLS5B,[29] ΦM1,[22][33] ΦM1,[22][34] ΦM1-5,[29] ΦM2,[35] ΦM3,[23] ΦM4,[23] ΦM5,[22][23] [36] ΦM5 (=ΦF20),[22][33] ΦM5N1,[29] ΦM6,[33] ΦM7,[33] ΦM8,[35] ΦM9,[33] ΦM10,[33] ΦM11,[33] ΦM11S,[29] ΦM12,[33][37] ΦM14,[33] ΦM14S,[29] ΦM19,[38] ΦM20S,[29][39] ΦM23S,[29] ΦM26S,[29] ΦM27S,[29] ΦMl,[40] ΦMM1C,[29] ΦMM1H,[29] ΦMP1,[41] ΦMP2,[41] ΦMP3,[41] ΦMP4,[41] ΦN2,[23] ΦN3,[23] ΦN4,[23] ΦN9,[23] ΦNM1,[29][39] ΦNM2,[29][39] ΦNM6,[29][39] ΦNM7,[29][39] ΦP6,[31] ΦP10,[31] ΦP33,[31] ΦP45,[31] ΦPBC5,[42] ΦRm108,[43] ΦRmp26,[44] ΦRmp36,[44] ΦRmp38,[44] ΦRmp46,[44] ΦRmp50,[44] ΦRmp52,[44] ΦRmp61,[44] ΦRmp64,[44] ΦRmp67,[44] ΦRmp79,[44] ΦRmp80,[44] ΦRmp85,[44] ΦRmp86,[44] ΦRmp88,[44] ΦRmp90,[44] ΦRmp145,[44] ΦSP,[23] ΦSSSS304,[45] ΦSSSS305,[45] ΦSSSS307,[45] ΦSSSS308,[45] and ΦT1.[23] Of these, ΦM5,[36] ΦM12,[37] Φ16-3[46] and ΦPBC5[42] have been sequenced.


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  12. ^ The sequence hasn't been officially announced, but is available at NCBI: chromosome, pSymA, pSymB, and pRM41a.
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    The full genome of this phage is available at NCBI
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  34. ^ Małek W (1990). "Properties of the transducing phage M1 of Rhizobium meliloti". Journal of Basic Microbiology. 30 (1): 43–50. doi:10.1002/jobm.3620300114.
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  40. ^ Małek W (1990). "Properties of the transducing phage Ml of Rhizobium meliloti". Journal of Basic Microbiology. 30 (1): 43–50. doi:10.1002/jobm.3620300114. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05.
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  42. ^ a b This phage has never been formally reported in the scientific literature. However, the full genomic sequence has been uploaded to NCBI, available here.
  43. ^ Novikova NI, Bazenova OV, Simarov BV (1987). "Phage sensitivity of natural and mutant strains of alfalfa nodule bacteria differing by cultural and symbiotic properties. (Summary in English)". Agric. Biol. 2: 35–39.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Khanuja SP, Kumar S (1989). "Symbiotic and galactose utilization properties of phage RMP64-resistant mutants affecting three complementation groups in Rhizobium meliloti". Journal of Genetics. 68 (2): 93–108. doi:10.1007/BF02927852.
  45. ^ a b c d Sharma RS, Mishra V, Mohmmed A, Babu CR (April 2008). "Phage specificity and lipopolysaccarides of stem- and root-nodulating bacteria (Azorhizobium caulinodans, Sinorhizobium spp., and Rhizobium spp.) of Sesbania spp". Archives of Microbiology. 189 (4): 411–8. doi:10.1007/s00203-007-0322-x. PMID 17989956.
  46. ^ Φ16-3 Complete Genome

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]