Guanidine nitrate

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Guanidine nitrate
Guanidinium nitrate.png
Ball-and-stick models of the constituent ions
IUPAC name
Guanidinium nitrate
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.007.328
EC Number
  • 208-060-1
Molar mass 122.1
Appearance White solid
Density 1.436 g/cm3
Melting point 213 °C (415 °F; 486 K)
Boiling point Decomposes below boiling point
160 g/l at 20 °C
Safety data sheet MSDS
Oxidizing Agent O
R-phrases (outdated) R20 R21 R22 R36 R38
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g. canola oilHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g. chloroformReactivity code 4: Readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition at normal temperatures and pressures. E.g. nitroglycerinSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Guanidine nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula [C(NH2)3]NO3. It is a colorless, water-soluble salt. It is produced on a large scale as high energy fuel used as gas generator and solid rocket propellant applications. Its more official name is guanidinium nitrate, but the incorrect term guanidine nitrate is widely used.

Production and properties[edit]

Although it is the salt formed by neutralizing guanidine with nitric acid, guanidine nitrate is produced industrially by the reaction of dicyandiamide (or calcium salt) and ammonium nitrate.[1]

It has been used as a monopropellant in the Jetex engine for model airplanes. It is attractive because it has a high gas output and low flame temperature. It has a relatively high monopropellant specific impulse of 177 seconds (1.7 kN·s/kg).[note 1]

Guanidine nitrate's explosive decomposition is given by the following equation: H6N4CO3 (s) → 3 H2O (g) + 2 N2 (g) + C (s)


The compound is a hazardous substance, being an explosive and containing an oxidant (nitrate). It is also harmful to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract.[1]


  1. ^ 1000 lbf/in2 (700 kPa) chamber pressure, 14.7 lbf/in2 (101 kPa) exit pressure, shifting equilibrium theoretical performance.
  1. ^ a b Thomas Güthner, Bernd Mertschenk and Bernd Schulz "Guanidine and Derivatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a12_545.pub2

External links[edit]